TMD/TMJD are the acronyms for “temporomandibular dysfunction” or “temporomandibular joint dysfunction” and describe a dysfunction of the masticatory (chewing) system.

This article on TMD/TMJD was created in collaboration with dentists and physiotherapists and is intended to give you a comprehensive overview of the complex and widespread topic of TMD.

Our practice specializes in the treatment of complex and serious TMD cases.

Dentist Winterthur - TMD Temporomandibular Dysfunction

Before TMD treatment

Dentist Winterthur - Correction of teeth positioning

After completing TMD treatment

What is TMD/TMJD?

TMD/TMJD are collective terms for symptoms of dysfunctions and pain of the masticatory (chewing) system. Many different structures can be affected and the symptoms manifest themselves in different parts of the body.

TMD/TMJD are the acronyms for “Temporomandibular Dysfunction” or “Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction” and describe a dysfunction of the masticatory (chewing) system.

The term temporomandibular dysfunction is broken down into the following words – temporal: sides/base bones of the skull, mandible: lower jawbone, and dysfunction: malfunction or disorder. The temporomandibular joint connects the mandible (lower jaw) to the skull.

The fine and close interaction of the jaw joint, jaw opening and closing muscles, tongue, throat and neck muscles as well as the teeth and the periodontium (connective tissue surrounding teeth) is responsible for the complex symptoms of TMD.

The teeth, which register even the smallest changes on the surface of the tooth, the proprioceptors (“nerve sensors”) in the jaw joint and the “tension and movement detectors” in the masticatory muscles are closely connected. These functional structures are in a finely regulated interaction with each other and form a so-called control circuit.

If a problem develops at one point, the other parts of this control circuit try to balance and compensate for this disturbance. However, it is not always possible to compensate for the problem, which subsequently leads to different kinds of symptoms

Dr Markus Spalek is a specialist in the treatment of TMD There are few dentists who have so much experience and knowledge in this field.

This enables us to find a stable and uncompromising solution for our patients, especially in complex cases.

Dentist in Winterthur - Dr. Markus Spalek

What are the causes of temporomandibular disorders?

The causes of CMD can be divided into psychological, dental and physical.

  • Psychological causes are based on dealing with mental stress.
  • Dental causes are based on an incorrect position of the teeth and lead to incorrect loading on the masticatory system and especially on the temporomandibular joints.
  • Physical causes include “ascending stresses” of the feet, pelvis, spine and shoulders.

Psychological causes

In our industrial world, many people have constant psychological and mental stress which is an important point in the development of TMD. Stress builds up in the body and often needs an outlet to be released. Many people use the masticatory system as an outlet, resulting in grinding and clenching of the teeth (bruxism). This strategy of stress reduction may work for some time, but in the long run it leads to noticable abrasion of the teeth and various TMD symptoms.

Therapeutically, this involves working on how to deal with stress. This can be done by the patient or with the support of a coach.

Dental causes

The dental causes are based on when the teeth do not have harmonious and ideal dentition, but are positioned so that they bite into each other in an unphysiological manner. Dental causes are essential to consider in the development of TMD.

An ideal and harmonious set of teeth (dentition) consists of very precisely defined contacts between teeth of the upper and lower jaw When biting together, this results in an even distribution of force on all teeth and consequently in ideal grinding of the food, while at the same time minimizing the force exerted by the jaw muscles. At the same time, the temporomandibular joints are in a physiological position and do not experience excessive compression.

If the bite has interfering contacts and incorrect loading, symptoms of TMD can quickly develop and the patient’s quality of life is greatly affected. Such an incorrect bite can occur, for example, if the permanent teeth erupt in the wrong position, the jaws are too small or too large, an incorrect denture was made, neighboring or opposing teeth tip into gaps left between the teeth, or if previous orthodontic therapies were carried out incorrectly.

This type of incorrect teeth positioning forces the temporomandibular joints into a non-physiological position and causes them to be severely stressed and compressed. If the incorrect bite persists, compensatory adjustments to the anatomical structures within the temporomandibular joints occur. These anatomical, skeletal changes, as part of TMD, manifest deep within the structures of the masticatory system and become a part of the complex dysfunction.

If occlusal interferences (undesirable tooth contact) are present, the masticatory muscles try to eliminate these areas by grinding and clenching (bruxism). As a result, the tension of the masticatory muscles increases and the jaw joints experience destructive forces – craniomandibular dysfunction is thus greatly intensified and accelerated. Bruxism is therefore both a symptom and a cause of TMD.

When treating the dental causes, the anatomy of the masticatory system is brought into a physiological state and the new, correct bite is harmoniously integrated.

Physical causes

The temporomandibular joint is regarded as the centerpoint of balance and is significantly involved in the body statics. It can regulate misalignments in the body, correct imbalances and compensate for relieving postures. Problems and disturbances in body statics can lead to craniomandibular dysfunction and can therefore also be a possible cause of TMD.

The temporomandibular joint can cause discomfort in the lumbar-pelvic area, which can extend to the feet – this is called “descending strain”. Conversely, misalignment of the feet, pelvis, spine and shoulders can lead to craniomandibular dysfunction – this is called “ascending strain”.

The entire chewing apparatus is connected to the head, the brain (brain stem) and the spinal column via muscles and nerves. When the masticatory system is not functioning appropriately, pain may be experienced in the head, neck and shoulder areas. Persistent dysfunction of the temporomandibular joints can affect the sacroiliac joint (ISG), which is connected to the temporomandibular joint by muscle chains. In the long term, this can lead to incorrect loading of the entire musculoskeletal system. In the long run, this can lead to improper strain on the entire musculoskeletal system.

Due to the spread of pain throughout the body, craniomandibular dysfunction is often not recognized at all or is recognized incorrectly and thus often remains untreated. If, for example, therapies in the neck, shoulder or back area are unsuccessful or if therapy-resistant, chronic headaches predominate, this can be an indication of TMD.

The physical causes of TMD, with the “ascending stresses,” require an interdisciplinary approach to therapy. For this, it is important that dentists, optometrists, osteopaths, experts in posturology, etc. work together closely. This is the only way that all causes of TMD can be treated effectively with ideal and long-lasting results.

Prevalence of TMD

Scientific evidence confirms that women suffer from craniomandibular dysfunction more often than men. About 80% of women and about 50% of men have TMD symptoms. Depending on the age of the patient, there are differences in the symptoms. Only very few children and adolecents have classic problems such as headaches and tinnitus. At their age, the body’s ability to compensate is very high and the entire body can adapt well to disruptive factors. In older teenagers, the symptoms are more likely to appear – usually in connection with stress, physical tension or a changed bite position.

Since the 1940s, TMD has become more common. The reason: Unfavorable living and working conditions caused a breaking point. Due to increased stress and a decrease in the ability to compensate and adapt, patients have been developing typical TMD symptoms. In the early phase, symptoms can often be corrected with relatively little effort. However, the longer a TMD persists, the more far-reaching the consequences and the more complex the therapy.

What are the Symptoms of temporomandibular disorders?

The symptoms of TMD are very diverse and can appear anywhere in the body. Most of the symptoms occur locally in the area of the head, but can also be referred down to the feet. There are three main reasons for the complexity of the symptoms.

1. As we learned above, the causes of TMD can differ greatly and can also reinforce each other. Different causes lead to various complex symptoms.

2. The jaw joints are very important for the statics of the entire body. Incorrect loading of the jaw joints consequently leads to imbalances in remote body structures. At the same time, existing disturbances in body statics often have to be compensated for by the jaw joints, which can lead to TMD symptoms. This was referred to earlier as “descending” and “ascending” strain/stress.

3. All structures of the body are connected to each other via fascia. These fascial and myofascial channels are concepts of the Anatomy Trains Teachings.


Local symptoms of the jaw and teeth

The local symptoms of jaw structures and teeth result mainly from the direct impact of the jaw muscles. The large jaw-closing muscles (masseter muscle, temporalis muscle, medial pterygoid muscle) are able to exert enormous forces. When clenching and grinding your teeth, so-called bruxism, these forces are transferred to the teeth, jaw joints and the surrounding ligaments and fascia. Consequently, the excessive forces lead to these expected symptoms:

  • Teeth are painful, severe tooth wear and fracturing/cracking of teeth.
  • Compression and incorrect loading of the temporomandibular joints lead to temporomandibular joint pain, cracking and popping noises when opening and closing the mouth. Due to permanent incorrect loading, structures of the jaw joints gradually rebuild and adapt to the non-physiological situation.
  • Tension and hypertrophy (enlargement of the muscles) occur in the masticatory muscles. Especially in the area of ​​the jaw angle, there is a prominent muscle enlargement and consequently visible changes in the facial anatomy.


Symptoms in the head and brain

Due to the close proximity, patients with TMD usually feel symptoms in the head area very early on. These symtoms manifest in the form of tension headaches, migraines and facial pain. Since bruxism occurs more frequently at night, a strong headache and facial pain in the morning are clear and common symptoms of TMD.

Permanent bruxism leads to severe abrasion of the tooth structure and consequently to a loss of bite height. Due to loss of bite height, the lower jaw rotates in more, which leads to compression of blood vessels, which are very important for the blood supply to the brain. A loss of occlusal height of just 1 mm can cause neurological dysfunctions.

As a result, neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia can occur at an accelerated rate. In addition, with an increasing loss of bite height, cognitive abilities can gradually decrease.

Therefore, the correct bite height should be restored and permanently integrated into the overall system of the mouth and head.

Ear symptoms

The temporomandibular joints are in close proximity to the ears.

The forces exerted during bruxism, combined with mental stress, can lead to various symptoms of the structures of the ear. Many patients who suffer from TMD complain about tinnitus (ringing in the ears), which severely affects wellbeing and quality of life, especially at night. In the case of severe temporomandibular disorders, the symptoms can extend to sudden hearing loss (mostly reversible hearing loss).

Since the organs of balance (vestibular system) are also located in the inner ear, symptoms such as dizziness and balance disorders are not uncommon.

Descending symptoms

Due to the importance of the jaw joints for balance and body statics and the connection of all body structures through fascia, TMD symptoms can occur and be felt anywhere on the body:

  • Neck tension and neck pain
  • Discomfort in the shoulder girdle and entire back
  • Changes in the anatomical and especially the skeletal system lead to compression in the area of ​​cartilage discs/joint structures and nerve cords. Joints that are overloaded as a result can show increased degeration with the consequences of arthrosis, arthritis and pain. The compression of nerve cords often leads to numbness in the arms/fingers and legs/feet.
  • Skeletal changes in the pelvis with a tilted pelvis, resulting in a difference in leg length.
  • Uneven loading of the knee joints and ankles with corresponding abrasion, degeneration and pain.

Consequently, a long-standing and unrecognized TMD can change the entire anatomy of the body and lead to misalignments, malpositions, incorrect loading, degeneration/degradation and pain.

Some orthopedists or physiotherapists try to solve the problems in the local area of ​​the painful structures, however the actual cause may lie in the masticatory system.

A leg length discrepancy is often compensated for with an insole, although the tilting of the pelvis can be a result of an incorrect bite.


Bruxism refers to an unconscious activity of the masticatory muscles that manifests itself in the form of teeth grinding and clenching. This is a strategy of the psyche to process accumulated mental stress such as worry, frustration or fear.

When you grind your teeth, your teeth rub against each other, while when you clench your teeth, your upper and lower jaws are pressed against each other without moving.

The reason why people start grinding and clenching when they are emotionally stressed is the connection of the limbic system (our emotional center in the brain) with the masticatory system. While this connection may make sense for short-term, healthy stress, it becomes a major health concern for long-term stress. The permanent activity of the masticatory muscles leads to the programming of pathological movement patterns. These unnatural movement patterns lead to an additional intensification and increase of TMD symptoms.

Chewing muscles can exert enormous forces, which are passed on to the jaw joints via tooth contacts. Therefore, it is ideal if the force is evenly distributed over many tooth contacts on all teeth. If the bite does not allow for a balanced distribution of force, the teeth and jaw joints are subjected to massive loads and pressure. Teeth can break or die due to this extreme local pressure. All symptoms of TMD can manifest gradually.

Bruxism puts a lot of pressure and tension on the entire chewing apparatus and is a common cause of TMD.

A distinction is made between sleep bruxism and awake bruxism, depending on whether the patient bruxes more at night or during the day.

At night when we sleep, we unconsciously process everything that concerns us, so that sleep bruxism often manifests itself, which is difficult to control.

When awake, those affected are more likely to notice if teeth are being clenched – awake bruxism. Affected people who suffer from sleep bruxism often wake up the next morning with aching jaw joints, headaches and neck pain or tense masticatory muscles. You feel tired and often notice a loss in concentration and performance.

Causes of bruxism

Bruxism is a large part of temporomandibular disorders and can worsen the conditions.

Emotional and mental stress are the main causes of bruxism.

“Grit your teeth!” is a typical phrase when things don’t go so smoothly. We usually work under pressure and want to meet daily demands, both professionally and privately. As an outlet to process stress and emotions more easily, the activity of the masticatory muscles increases and bruxism manifests itself.

Another cause of bruxism is an incorrect bite and improper contact of the teeth.

Normally, the teeth of the upper and lower jaw come together evenly, without any disturbances, in a clearly defined position. The sideways movement of the lower jaw glides harmoniously, without any interference, along the canines. If, on the other hand, the bite is unphysiological and the tooth contacts are unevenly distributed, the jaw muscles try to “correct” the bite through bruxism and grind down the area with disturbances.

In such cases, bruxism is the result of misaligned teeth and can be worsened by stress.

Treatment of temporomandibular disorders

Since the causes of TMD are so complex and multifaceted, it is important that the therapy is planned very individually and that all causal points are addressed at the same time. In order to carry out such treatment correctly and effectively, it requires the cooperation of experienced experts of various disciplines.

A coordinated, interdisciplinary therapy between dentist, osteopath, optometrist, posturologist, physiotherapist and coach for stress management leads to a long-term and causal solution to the problems caused by TMD.

With this interdisciplinary approach to TMD therapy, the dentist oversees the planning and refers the patient to the appropriate therapist. Is of great importance that the dentist has a lot of experience in the field of TMD therapy, has a network of experienced therapists and has a good understanding of the basics of these various medical disciplines.

Interdisciplinary collaboration in TMD therapy

  • Dentists
  • Osteopaths
  • Optometrists
  • Posturologists
  • Orthopedists
  • Dental technician
  • Orthodontists
  • Speech therapists
  • Physiotherapists
  • Kinesiologists
  • Oral surgeons
  • Psychotherapists
  • ENT specialists
  • Neurologists
  • Pain therapists
  • Homeopaths
  • Coaches specializing in pain and stress management

This list gives a complete overview. Depending on the patient’s individual case, some of these specialists are consulted for support in the treatment and therapy.

In complex TMD cases, the experienced dentist usually includes several other therapists in the treatment. In this way, the ideal result can be achieved faster and more reliably.


The teaching of dentokinetics arose from the knowledge that the chewing apparatus interacts with the whole body in a variety of ways. The position of the jaw joints and the movement patterns of the masticatory muscles are inevitably linked to the movements and structures of the entire body and these interact with one another.

Therefore, dentokinetics not only takes into account TMD causes in the tooth and jaw area, but also takes into account the descending and ascending strain on the entire body statics and balance.

The aim of dentokinetics is to permanently convert the dysfunctional masticatory system to its natural and physiological state and to achieve a constant balance of body statics.

The concept of integrative cooperation between specialists from different disciplines is useful (see above).

The dentokinetic dentist works with the MAGO splint, which is able to treat TMD at the root and restore body balance.

In our opinion, dentokinetics is the most effective and profound therapy to treat TMD from the root cause and to achieve a permanently stable, balanced situation in the entire body.

Splint Therapy with the MAGO Splint

The MAGO splint goes back to the American biologist and dentist Dr. Robert Lee and stands for:

Maxillary (upper jaw)

Anterior Guided (front)

Orthosis (aid to support the musculoskeletal system)

Dr. Robert Lee dedicated his life to examining the masticatory system and developed this type of splint therapy in order to be able to treat affected patients in a cause-specific manner.

The result of his work was the MAGO splint and the concept of dentokinetics.

The only thing that the MAGO splint has in common with usual splints is the transparent material. In terms of function and effect, the MAGO splint sets absolute standards in TMD therapy.

As described above, persistent TMD results in anatomical changes in the structures of the masticatory system. These structural changes form part of TMD and must be resolved gently.

This is exactly where the MAGO splint comes in. It is able to reverse the pathological changes of the chewing apparatus and bring the tissue into a harmonious and balanced state. The incorrect movement patterns of the muscles are converted into physiological ones and the jaw joints are regenerated and stabilized in the correct position.

A treatment with the MAGO splint requires frequent adjustments so that the tissue can be gradually and gently restructured. After a few weeks, at latest after three to four months, most patients experience significant relief from their TMD symptoms.

The MAGO therapy is complete when there are no more symptoms, the masticatory muscles show physiological movement patterns and the jaw joints have been regenerated and stabilised. In most cases, it is after six to nine months.

After completion of the MAGO therapy, the new, physiological situation and position of the jaw joints is permanently stabilized. This is done by reshaping the teeth and stably integrating the correct bite into the system.

If you would like to learn more about the different types of splints used in dentistry, please continue reading the following article.

Remodeling the teeth

After a successful MAGO therapy carried out by an experienced TMD specialist, the correct remodeling of the teeth takes place.

In the vast majority of TMD patients, the teeth and jaw joints are in the wrong position at the start of therapy. The MAGO splint brings the jaw joints into their ideal, physiological position and also into harmony with body statics. After that, the original bite and teeth do not fit together correctly and require reconfiguration to match the new, physiological situation of the jaw joints.

First, dental models are made with an impression, which reflect the exact shape of the teeth and show how the upper and lower jaws line up. The desired tooth shapes are built up with wax on these dental models according to dentokinetic criteria (wax-up) and later transferred to the corresponding ceramic tooth restorations.
Dentist Winterthur Zurich Craniomandibular Dysfunction Tooth Reconstruction

Care is taken to ensure that the teeth are ground down as little as possible and treated as gently as possible.

After the finished ceramic reconstructions of the teeth have been placed, the bite height and interlocking are optimally adapted to the temporomandibular joints and the masticatory system is in perfect balance with whole body.

Ceramic remodeled teeth should not differ from natural tooth structure in any way and provide a perfect aesthetic result.

Ceramic restorations should be produced by a dental technician who has experience in the field of ceramics and aesthetics.

Symptom Analysis

1. Question

Is your mouth opening restricted?

Check your mouth opening by placing your index and middle fingers between your upper and lower front teeth. Can your fingers fit in easily?

If not, then your mouth opening is restricted.

FAQ about TMD

TMD: What can you do yourself?

TMD is a complex disorder in which emotional and psychological factors play a large role. At this point you can take action yourself:

Start observing yourself:

Try to focus on your chewing muscles throughout the day. Do you bite and press your teeth together? Is the jaw tense? The upper and lower teeth should only touch briefly when chewing or swallowing, but then separate again and have some distance when resting. For introspection and observation, stick a noticeable post-it on objects around you, e.g. wristwatch, laptop, cell phone, etc.

Always check the position of your teeth when you see the post-it. If you catch yourself with clenched teeth, consciously open your mouth and close it in a relaxed manner. Repeat this up to 10 times.

Further questions for reflection:

In which (stressful) situations do you tend to suffer more from your symptoms?

When do you tend to grind or clench your teeth?

When do you have an incorrect/bad posture?

In such situations, you can actively and consciously relax your jaw, decompress and correct your posture.

Coping with stress:

Find an activity that provides mental and physical balance.

Targeted physiotherapeutic exercises and an exercise and training plan are very effective in achieving lasting results.

Intentional breaks, especially for your jaw joints, should also be integrated into everyday life.

Connection between chronic inflammation and TMD?
Chronic inflammation in the body creates permanent internal stress, which can intensify symptoms of TMD. It does this by constantly activating the immune cells, shifting the body’s energy distribution heavily towards the immune system. A permanently activated immune system requires a lot of energy and can be very exhausting. We know this very well from the flu – you want to go to bed and sleep quickly. The lack of energy in itself creates stress, but it is exacerbated by societal pressure to perform well and be productive over a long period of time. This has a negative effect on the symptoms of TMD.

Many of the hidden, chronic inflammations are present in the area of the jaws. This is because there are no organs that are treated as much as the teeth and jaws. There is no other region of the body into which so many materials and foreign substances are introduced as the teeth and jaws. Prior to CMD therapy, the mouth and jaw region should be thoroughly checked to see if chronic inflammation is present.

What about the classic bite splint?
Classic, transparent bite splints are usually produced for treating symptoms of TMD. These so-called Michigan splints or grinding splints (also known as occlusial/night splints) can stabilise the teeth and prevent abrasion caused by bruxism. However, such splints are not able to treat the cause of craniomandibular dysfunction. As with a crutch/walker, people can function a little better, but the underlying problems remain.
Are MAGO splints metal-free?
Yes. We produce MAGO splints which are metal-free, made from a high-quality composite. This enables us to guarantee the best biological compatibility.
Are there conventional dental appliances?

Der Aqualizer ist eine wassergefüllte Schiene, welche kurzfristig bei akuten CMD-Symptomen verwendet werden kann. Für eine dauerhafte Verwendung ist der Aqualizer jedoch nicht geeignet, weil Weichmacher vermehrt austreten und die Gefahr besteht, dass sich die Zähne verschieben können. Zudem ist er nicht für eine ursächliche Therapie der CMD geeignet.

Bruxane ist eine Aufbissschiene, die anfängt zu vibrieren, sobald es zum Knirschen oder Pressen kommt. Die Vibration bewirkt ein Biofeedback an das gesamte Kausystem und das zentrale Nervensystem, wodurch der Bruxismus langsam abtrainiert wird. Ein Nachteil sind die elektromagnetischen Felder der Elektronik, welche direkt im Kopf gebildet werden. Das Gerät wirkt eher symptomatisch und nicht ursachenspezifisch.

Der RelaxBogen ist ein weiteres Hilfsmittel, welches bei Schmerzen der Kaumuskulatur angewendet werden kann. Dabei sorgt er für einen dauerhaften, leichten Druck auf die grossen Kaumuskeln, wodurch die myofaszialen Strukturen des Gesichts entspannt werden. Der RelaxBogen kann über längere Zeit verwendet werden, verfehlt aber bei den allermeisten Betroffenen die Ursachen der CMD-Beschwerden.

Die angesprochenen Geräte können kurzfristige Hilfe in akuten Phasen liefern. Eine längerfristige Anwendung kann verschiedene Nachteile mit sich bringen und sollte vermieden werden.

Eine dauerhafte Lösung bedarf einer ursachengerichteten, vollständigen interdisziplinären Betrachtung der CMD. Die Therapie sollte unter dentokinetischen Gesichtspunkten alle myofaszialen und strukturellen Strukturen in Balance bringen und den erreichten gesunden Zustand über die neue, umgeformte Zahnsituation stabilisieren.

Can previous crowns, bridges and implants cause TMD?

Yes, it is possible.

When restoring crowns, bridges and implants, various functional criteria must be taken into account.

  • The bite height should be set into an ideal position
  • The jaws should be in line with the temporomandibular joints both vertically and horizontally.
  • Bone sutures should not be splinted. Blockage of teeth (e.g. permanent retainer) can increase TMD symptoms.

If these points are not taken into account, TMD symptoms can arise or be further aggravated.

Can past orthodontic treatments trigger TMD?
If a previous orthodontic treatment was planned and carried out incorrectly, massive craniomandibular dysfunctions can develop.
This can result in functional problems of the masticatory system with problems in the jaw joints, symptoms such as tinnitus, dizziness and even loss of vision, descending symptoms in the neck, spine and hips, etc.

Patients who formerly had faulty orthodontic treatments often experience a great deal of suffering. They often have had many dental and non-dental consultations and therapies and therefore absolutely need a correct, interdisciplinary approach to TMD therapy.

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